Conjunction in Hindi – Definition, Types and Examples

Conjunction Definition in Hindi

Conjunction को hindi में संयोजक कहा जाता है।
Conjunction वह शब्द है जो शब्दों या वाक्यों को जोड़ता है।
Conjunction से हमारा अभिप्राय भाषा के उस प्रकार से है, जो words (शब्दों), phrases (उक्तियाँ) एवं clauses ( वाक्यांशों) को जोड़ने का कार्य करता है।
अर्थात् conjunction एक ऐसा शब्द है, जो दो शब्दों या वाक्यों को आपस में जोड़ता है।

(i) He was in the class.
(ii) He did not listen to the teacher.
He was in the class but he did not listen to the teacher.
यहाँ ‘But’ conjunction दोनों वाक्यों को जोड़ने का कार्य कर रहा है।

(i) Take this boy or Phrase-I that one.
(ii) Ram and Shyam are best friends.

Noun Linking Noun word

(iii) He was misbehaving with the teacher therefore he was expelled.

Kind of Conjunction

  1. Co-ordinating 
  2. Sub- ordination
  3. Correlative
  4.  Compound

1. Coordinating Conjunction (समानपदीय संयोजक ) : इसका प्रयोग एक समान rank वाले खण्डों (clauses) को जोड़ने के लिए किया जाता है, अर्थात् Nouns के साथ nouns, verbs के साथ verbs, adjectives के साथ adjectives और adverbs के साथ adverbs को जोड़ा जाता हैं। इनमें मुख्यत हैं: and, or, but, nor, yet, so, far, etc.

Type of Coordinating Conjunction

(ii) Adversative

(iii) Alternative

(i) Cumulative

(iv) Illative

(i) Cumulative Conjunction (संयुक्त संयोजक) : इस conjunction का प्रयोग दो statements को जोड़ने के लिए किया जाता है। इसमें मुख्यत: not only…but also, as well as, and, both…and, आदि का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

E.g. (i) He wrote the letters and his friend posted them.

(ii) They saw and wished the guest.

(iii) The thief not only looted the shop but also set it on fire.

(ii) Adversative Conjunction (विरोधात्मक संयोजक) इस conjunction का प्रयोग दो statements के बीच अंतर विरोध (Contrast) बताने के लिए किया जाता है। इसमें मुख्यतः while, whereas, but, yet, still, only, nevertheless,  आदि का प्रयोग किया जाता ह 

E.g. (i) He does not have money yet he is able to send his son to a good school. (ii) He is punctual while his brother is always late. (iii) Madhu worked very hard nevertheless he scored few marks.

(iii) Alternative Conjunction ( वैकल्पिक संयोजक) इस conjunction का प्रयोग दो विकल्पों

(Alternatives) को बताने वाले statements के लिए किया जाता है। इसमें मुख्यतः otherwise, else,

neither…nor, either…or, or  आदि का प्रयोग किया जाता ह 

E.g.

(i) Work hard else you’ll not succeed.

(ii) Give me a cup of tea or a cup of coffee.

 (iii) You should obey the rules otherwise your mother will be angry.

(iv) Illative Conjunction (परिणामसूचक संयोजक) : इस conjunction का प्रयोग एक कथन (statement) का नतीजा परिणाम बताने के लिए किया जाता है। इसमें मुख्यतः so for, therefore,आदि का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

E.g. (i) She wanted to buy a house therefore she applied for a loan.

(ii) He came late so the teacher scolded him (iii) They must have gone out for nobody answers the phone.

2. Sub-ordinating Conjunction (आश्रित संयोजक) इस conjunction का प्रयोग दो dependent / sub-ordinate clause को main clause से जोड़ने के लिए किया जाता है। इसमें मुख्यतः how, where, why, until, till, while, though aufen fa

E.g. (i) I do not know where he lives (ii) Wait here until I come.

(iii) Strike the rod while it is hot.

Type of Sub-ordinating Conjunction

1.time 

2.cause or reason

3.condition

4.purpose

5.result or effect

6.manner of extent

7.concession or contrast

8.comparison

9.place

(1) Time: इन conjunctions का प्रयोग clause के समय को दर्शाने के लिए किया जाता है, जैसे- While,

as soon as, when, as, since, before, after, etc.

E.g. (i) Ramesh called Ashwin when he was asleep.

(ii) As soon as the alarm goes off, I hit the snooze button. 

(ii) Cause or Reason इन conjunctions का प्रयोग clause में कारण (reason) को दर्शाने के लिए, किया जाता ह . – as, since, because, etc.

E.g. (i) Manoj was not ready for his office because he was ill. 

(ii) Since it was a holiday, I did not go to office.

(iii) Condition: इन conjunctions का प्रयोग clause में शर्त (condition) को दर्शाने के लिए  किया जाता ह  – as if, if, unless, provided, provided that, etc.

E.g. (i) Shikha behaved as if she belonged to a kind family. (ii) You can buy this guitar provided that you spare twenty thousand rupees,

(iv) Purpose: इन conjunctions का प्रयोग clause में उद्देश्य (Purpose) को दर्शाने के लिए किया जाता ,- that, so that, lest, etc.

E.g. (i) She applied for a loan so that she might pay the fee of her course.

(ii) Think twice lest you should make a mistake. (v) Result or Effect:

 इन conjunctions का प्रयोग clause में परिणाम (result) दर्शन के लिए  किया जाता ह  such…that, so…that, etc.

E.g. He is such an innocent boy that he trusts everyone easily. (vi) Manner or Extent 

इन conjunctions का प्रयोग clause के ढंग (manner) को दर्शाने के लिए  किया जाता ह far as far as, as though, as, as if, etc.

E.g. Meena Kumari was a good actress as far as we know. (vii) 

Concession or Contrast: conjunctions इन  clause frara/ (concession)का प्रयोग f – though, although, however, etc.

E.g. (i) Although he is a billionaire, he does not show off.

(ii) His brother did not tell the truth though he knew what happened last night.

(viii) Comparison इन conjunctions का प्रयोग clause में तुलना (comparison) दर्शाने के लिए किया

जाता है,- as, than, as…as, so…as, etc.

E.g. (i) Kamal is taller than Priya. (ii) Ekta is as hard working as Ashok.

 3. Correlative Conjunction: conju का प्रयोग हमेशा जोड़े (pairs) में किया जाता है,though…yet, whether…or, neither…nor, either…or, both…and, not only…but also, etc..

E.g. (i) Neither Indush nor Shaurya watched the movie.. (ii) He not only accepted but also appreciated the proposal.

4. Compound Conjunction : ये conjunctions जो दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों का समूह हो. compound conjunctions – as though, although, as if, in order that, provided that, etc.

E.g. (1) She walked as if the Earth belonged to her.

(ii) Sanjeev finished the work even though he was ill. 

Rule 1: Either… or/ neither…nor/ not only… but also का प्रयोग करते समय इस बात का  ध्यान रखना पड़ता है, कि ये एक ही प्रकार के शब्दों (words) या शब्द समूहों (Phrases) को जोड़ने का काम करते हैं।

E.g. (1) Either Monika is careless or ignorant.   (Incorrect)

Monika is either careless or ignorant.   (correct)

(ii) Not only Leena wished me but also gave me an iPhone.  (Incorrect)

 Leena not only wished me but also gave me an iPhone.  (correct)

(iii) Neither Manish works nor his friend works carefully.    (Incorrect)

Neither Manish nor his friend works carefully.  (correct)

(iv) Manoj not only works here but also in a reputed firm.    (incorrect)

Manoj works not only here but also in a reputed firm.     (correct)

(v) Anurag both likes coke and pepsi. (x) Anurag likes both coke and pepsi. (✓)

(vi) You either irritated me intentionally or unintentionally.(Incorrect)

You irritated me either intentionally or unintentionally. (Correct)

1.वाक्ये  (i) ‘either…ory Monika’or ‘ignorant’ parallelism को follow नहीं कर रहे हैं। Either के बाद प्रयुक्त Monika noun है, जबकि or के बाद प्रयुक्त ‘Ignorant’ adjective है, इसको ठीक करने के लिए either की position बदलनी होगी, इसलिए either careless (Adj.) का प्रयोग सही होगा

2. (i) ‘not only…but also’ Leena’ a ‘gave’ parallelism follow नहीं कर रहे हैं। इसलिए not only wished (v) but also gave (Verb) का प्रयोग सही होगा।

 3. वाक्य (iii) में ‘neither… nor’ के साथ प्रयुक्त शब्द ‘Manish’ एवं ‘his friend’ तो सही हैं, परंतु समरूपता वाक्य में इनका ‘arrangement’ गलत है। अत: neither Manish nor his friend का

प्रयोग सही होगा।

4.वाक्य (iv) ‘not only…but also works’ a ‘in a reputed firm समरूपता (parallelism) को follow नहीं कर रहे हैं। इसलिए not only here (Adv.) but also in a reputed firm (Adv.) ayam g

5. वाक्य (v) में both and’ के साथ प्रयुक्त शब्द ‘likes’ एवं ‘pepsi’ समरूपता (parallelism) को follow नहीं कर रहे हैं। अत: both coke (Noun) and pepsi (Noun) का प्रयोग सही होगा।

6. वाक्य (vi) में either…or’ के साथ प्रयुक्त शब्द ‘irritated’ एवं ‘unintentionally’ समरूपता (parallelism) को follow नहीं कर रहे हैं। 3: either intentionally (Adv.) unintentionally (Adv.) का प्रयोग सही होगा। 

Rule 2. Although या though के बाद yet या comma (,) का प्रयोग होता है, न कि ‘but’ का

(1)Although he is poor he is happy.

Although he is poor yet he is happy. (✓)

Although he is poor, he is happy. (✓) 

(2)(ii) Though it is march it blows cold. (x)

Though it is march, it blows cold. (✓) 

Though it is march yet it (✓) 

इन वाक्यों में विरोधाभास का बोध हो रहा है जिससे पता चलता है कि although / though से बने वाक्यों में विरोधाभास होता है। उसी तरह ‘but’ भी विरोधाभास के लिए प्रयुक्त होता है इसलिए इनका प्रयोग एक साथ नहीं होता।

Rule 3: Hardly / scarcely के बाद when का प्रयोग होता है, then / than / that का नहीं।

Hardly/ Scarcely+Did Had+When +V₁/v3

(i) Scarcely had Kanchan got her salary when she went out to buy new dresses.

(ii) Hardly had Manchan entered the house when his father scolded him.

Rule 4. No sooner के बाद ‘then / when / that’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता है, इनके स्थान पर ‘than’ का

प्रयोग होता है। 

(i) No sooner did the police see the thief than he started running.

(ii) No sooner had Vandana arrived home than she was asked to prepare some dishes.

Note: Rule 3 और 4 में यदि वाक्य scarcely, hardly या no sooner से शुरू होता है, तो  वाक्य में inversion (verb + sub) लगेगा (विस्तार से adverb chapter में देखें)।

Rule-5:  Whether के बाद or का प्रयोग होता है।

(i) I am not sure whether Sonia will accept my proposal or not.

(ii) Anoop asked me whether I had his books or not.

Rule 6. Between and तथा from… to का प्रयोग करते समय ध्यान रखें कि इनके प्रयोग में गलती न हो।

Between के साथ ‘to’ एवं ‘from’ के साथ ‘and’ नहीं आता है।

 (i) The shop will remain closed from 2 pm. and 4 pm. (Incorrect)

The shop will remain closed from 2 pm. to 4 pm. (Correct)

(2) Contact Karan between 1 March to 10 March. (Incorrect) 

Contact Karan between 1 March and 10 March (Correct)

Rule 7  The reason the reason why because, because of, on account of दया due to का प्रयोग न होकर ‘that’ का प्रयोग होता है।

E.g. (i) The reason why Rakesh can not pay the fee is that he does not have money

 (i) This is the reason that Nirdesh is not behaving sensible.    (Correct)

(iii) The reason for his anger is that Aman did not sleep last night.    (Correct)

Rule 8.  निम्न pairs का प्रयोग सही होता है।

 Either… or… or… or, Neither… nor… nor … nor

(i) Mridul likes neither milk, nor whey, nor curd.

(i) Umesh has neither a bicycle, sor a scooter, nor any other means of transport. 

(iii) Either you, or he, or I have done this great work.

Rule 9.   Never/Not… or का प्रयोग सही होता  न की , Never/Not… nor का |

(i) Rashi does not watch or listen to music.

(ii) Dhirendra is never angry of upset.

Rule 10.  Such That का प्रयोग कारण/ परिणाम बताने के लिए किया जाता है।

 • As का प्रयोग तुलना करने के लिए किया जाता है।

(i) It was such a

bad weather that we had to cancel the tour.

(ii) Annu is such a studious girl as we thought of.

Rule 11.   So… that का अर्थ ‘इतना कि’ होता है, So तथा That के बीच हम हमेशा Adjective का प्रयोग करते हैं। इसका प्रयोग अधिकतर Too… to’ या Enough… to’ के स्थान पर किया जाता है। ‘Too… to’ के

लिए Negative तथा ‘Enough… to’ के लिए Positive वाक्य की रचना की जाती है।

E.g. () Prayag is too weak to run. Prayag is so weak that he cannot run.

(ii) Umama is so intelligent that she cannot be cheated.

(iii) Ajay is too poor to study her. 

(iv) Ravinder is so weak that he can not run. 

(v) Amrinder is enough to prevail upon his father to buy him a new bike.

Rule-12: As…as का अर्थ ‘इतना जितना होता है। इनका प्रयोग Affirmative तथा Negative sentences में होता है, जबकि so… as का प्रयोग सिर्फ Negative sentences में होता है।

E.g. (i) Delhi is not as big as Mumbai.

(ii) Jitendra drives as fast as he can.

(ii) Montu is not so skilled as we need for this job. 

So…..as, As….. as के बीच adverb या adjective की positive degree किया जाता है।

E.g. He is as taller as Rahul. (x)

He is as tall as Rahul. (✓)

Rule-13: ‘Like’ एवं ‘as’ के प्रयोग में अंतर होता है। ‘like का प्रयोग Preposition की तरह किया जाता है। अत: इसके बाद pronoun के objective case का प्रयोग किया जाता है। 

E.g. (i) Rajesh walks like a king. (ii) Ankur is an engineer like me.

(i) Vikas looks like being rigid.

‘As’ का प्रयोग Conjunction के रूप में होता है और इसके बाद सदैव Subjective case का प्रयोग होता है। 

(i) Rajesh works hard as I do. (ii) Bheema eats as an elephant.

Rule 14. ‘So that’ का प्रयोग किसी का परिणाम (result) बताने के लिए किया जाता है। 

(i) celam worked hard so that she might succeed.

(ii) Leena and Monika arrived early so that they might get a good seat in the train.

Rule 15.   ‘As soon as’ का अर्थ है ‘ज्यों ही’ (at that moment) और इसका प्रयोग Positive तथा Negative दोनों Sentences में किया जाता है।

 E.g. (i) As soon as Gyan saw me, he started waving his hand.

(ii) Isha will pay the rent as soon as she receives her salary.

Rule-16: When के साथ Then या After that का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता, बल्कि “,” (comma) का प्रयोग किया जाता है। 

E.g. When Manish called me then I was reading a novel. (Incorrect)

When Manish called me, I was reading a novel.    (Correct)

Rule-17: Doubt / Doubtful… if / whether. Doubt Doubtful… that.Positive sentencesमें  Doubtful/doubt  के साथ If/Whether Negative/ or interrogative sentences में Doubtful / doubt के साथ ‘that’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

E.g. (i) Meenu doubts if/whether she may qualify the physical fitness test.

(ii) I do not have any doubt that he is a graduate.

 (iii) Do you doubt that I will not support you?

(iv) It is doubtful if/whether he can do it.

Rule-18: Since / because / as  के साथ therefore /so  का प्रयोग नहीं किया जा सकता।

E.g. (i) Because I wanted to buy a house therefore I worked hard. (therefore जगह comma () का प्रयोग करें)

(ii) Since it is Sunday therefore all the shops are closed. (therefore comma ()

का प्रयोग करें)

 (iii) As he finished his meals so he asked for a towel. (so (₁) commaका

प्रयोग करें)

Rule-19: ‘Either of का प्रयोग ‘दो में से एक’ के अर्थ में किया जाता है, लेकिन अगर ‘दो से अधिक में से एक’ की बात हो, तो ‘one of का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(i) One of the two workers is experienced.    (Incorrect)

Either of the two workers is experienced.(Correct)

(ii)Either of the five students has reached the school..     (Incorrect)

One of the five students has reached the school.(Correct)

‘Neither of का प्रयोग ‘दो में से एक भी नहीं’ के अर्थ में होता है, लेकिन अगर “दो से अधिक में से एक भी नहीं’ की बात हो, तो ‘None of’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(i) None of the two players played well.     (Incorrect)

Neither of the two players played well.      (Correct)

(ii) Neither of the three boys visited this hill station.      (Incorrect)

None of the three boys visited this hill station.     (Correct)

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